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Life - from Politics to Philosophy Plato was born in Athens in c.
Until his mid-twenties, Athens was involved in a long and disastrous military conflict with Sparta, known as the Peloponnesian War. But this never happened. Although cherishing the hope of assuming a significant place in his political community, he found himself continually thwarted.
As he relates in his autobiographical Seventh Letter, he could not identify himself with any of the contending political parties or the succession of corrupt regimes, each of which brought Athens to further decline ba. He was a pupil of Socrates, whom he considered the most just man of his time, and who, although did not leave any writings behind, exerted a large influence on philosophy.
It was perhaps because of this opinion that he retreated to his Academy and to Sicily for implementing his ideas. He visited Syracuse first inthen inand again inwith the general purpose to moderate the Sicilian tyrants with philosophical education and to establish a model political rule.
But this adventure with practical politics ended in failure, and Plato went back to Athens. His Academy, which provided a base for succeeding generations of Platonic philosophers until its final closure in C.
Mathematics, rhetoric, astronomy, dialectics, and other subjects, all seen as necessary for the education of philosophers and statesmen, were studied there. His most renowned pupil was Aristotle. Plato died in c. During his lifetime, Athens turned away from her military and imperial ambitions and became the intellectual center of Greece.
She gave host to all the four major Greek philosophical schools founded in the course of the fourth century: The Threefold Task of Political Philosophy Although the Republic, the Statesman, the Laws and a few shorter dialogues are considered to be the only strictly political dialogues of Plato, it can be argued that political philosophy was the area of his greatest concern.
In the English-speaking world, under the influence of twentieth century analytic philosophy, the main task of political philosophy today is still often seen as conceptual analysis: To understand what this means, it may be useful to think of concepts as the uses of words. Conceptual analysis then is a mental clearance, the clarification of a concept in its meaning.
As such it has a long tradition and is first introduced in Platonic dialogues. However, in contrast to what it is for some analytic philosophers, for Plato conceptual analysis is not an end to itself, but a preliminary step.
The next step is critical evaluation of beliefs, deciding which one of the incompatible ideas is correct and which one is wrong. For Plato, making decisions about the right political order are, along with the choice between peace and war, the most important choices one can make in politics. Such decisions cannot be left solely to public opinion, he believes, which in many cases does not have enough foresight and gets its lessons only post factum from disasters recorded in history.
In his political philosophy, the clarification of concepts is thus a preliminary step in evaluating beliefs, and right beliefs in turn lead to an answer to the question of the best political order. The Quest for Justice in The Republic One of the most fundamental ethical and political concepts is justice.
It is a complex and ambiguous concept. It may refer to individual virtue, the order of society, as well as individual rights in contrast to the claims of the general social order.
In Book I of the Republic, Socrates and his interlocutors discuss the meaning of justice. The old man of means Cephalus suggests the first definition. Yet this definition, which is based on traditional moral custom and relates justice to honesty and goodness; i.
It cannot withstand the challenge of new times and the power of critical thinking. Socrates refutes it by presenting a counterexample. If we tacitly agree that justice is related to goodness, to return a weapon that was borrowed from someone who, although once sane, has turned into a madman does not seem to be just but involves a danger of harm to both sides.
However, when Socrates finally objects that it cannot be just to harm anyone, because justice cannot produce injustice, Polemarchus is completely confused. He agrees with Socrates that justice, which both sides tacitly agree relates to goodness, cannot produce any harm, which can only be caused by injustice.This reality, then, that gives their truth to the objects of knowledge and the power of knowing to the knower, you must say is the idea of the good, and you must conceive it as being the cause of knowledge  and of truth  in so far as known..
|The concept of the “soul-mind”||Roman copy of a Greek statue, 4th Century B.|
|An encyclopedia of philosophy articles written by professional philosophers.||See Article History Alternative Title: At that time, almost everything in the domain of systematic knowledge was understood to be a branch of philosophy.|
|Dating, editing, translation||These features represent the contributions of scholars of many generations and countries, as does the ongoing attempt to correct for corruption. Important variant readings and suggestions are commonly printed at the bottom of each page of text, forming the apparatus criticus.|
Plato, Republic, e, Republic II, translated by Paul Shorey, Loeb Classical Library, Harvard University Press, , , pp, color added. Final Paper Penny Scott College of Mount St. Joseph The Philosophical Point of View PHI Professor Shanti Chu June 13, Final Paper This paper will concern the comparison of the two philosophical viewpoints we have studied, Plato and Sartre.
Plato (c. B.C.E.) developed such distinct areas of philosophy as epistemology, metaphysics, ethics, and aesthetics. His deep influence on Western philosophy is asserted in the famous remark of Alfred North Whitehead: “the safest characterization of the European philosophical tradition is. Republic (Hackett Classics) [Plato, C.
D. C. Reeve] on leslutinsduphoenix.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. This edition includes a select bibliography, a synopsis of each book, a glossary of terms, a glossary and index of names. Philosophy (from Greek φιλοσοφία, philosophia, literally "love of wisdom") is the study of general and fundamental problems concerning matters such as existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language.
The term was probably coined by Pythagoras (c. – BCE). Philosophical methods include questioning, critical discussion, rational argument, and systematic presentation.
Plato (c. B.C.E.) developed such distinct areas of philosophy as epistemology, metaphysics, ethics, and aesthetics. His deep influence on Western philosophy is asserted in the famous remark of Alfred North Whitehead: “the safest characterization of the European philosophical tradition is.