Aboriginal people did not have distinct ideas of war and peace, and traditional warfare was common, taking place between groups on an ongoing basis, with great rivalries being maintained over extended periods of time. The fighting of a war to conquer enemy territory was not only beyond the resources of any of these Aboriginal groupings, it was contrary to a culture that was based on spiritual connections to a specific territory. Formal battles involved fighting between two groups of warriors, which ended after a few warriors had been killed or wounded, due to the need to ensure the ongoing survival of the groups. Such battles were usually fought to settle grievances between groups, and could take some time to prepare.
In the popular view, the late 19th century was a period of greed and guile: It is easy to caricature the Gilded Age as an era of corruption, conspicuous consumption, and unfettered capitalism.
The late 19th century saw the creation of a modern industrial economy.
A national transportation and communication network was created, the corporation became the dominant form of business organization, and a managerial revolution transformed business operations.
An era of intense partisanship, the Gilded Age was also an era of reform. The Civil Service Act sought to curb government corruption by requiring applicants for certain governmental jobs to take a competitive examination.
The Interstate Commerce Act sought to end discrimination by railroads against small shippers and the Sherman Antitrust Act outlawed business monopolies. These were turbulent years that saw labor violence, rising racial tension, militancy among farmers, and discontent among the unemployed.
Burdened by heavy debts and falling farm prices, many farmers joined the Populist Party, which called for an increase in the amount of money in circulation, government assistance to help farmers repay loans, tariff reductions, and a graduated income tax.
The only parts of the Far West that were highly settled were California and Texas. Between and the s, however, Americans settled million acres in the Far West--more land than during the preceding years of American history.
Bythe Census Bureau was able to claim that the entire western frontier was now occupied. The discovery of gold, silver, and other precious minerals in California inin Nevada and Colorado in the s, in Idaho and Montana in s, and South Dakota in the s sparked an influx of prospectors and miners.
The expansion of railroads and the invention of barbed wire and improvements in windmills and pumps attracted ranchers and farmers to the Great Plains in the s and s. This chapter examines the forces that drove Americans westward; the kinds of lives they established in the Far West; and the rise of the "West of the imagination," the popular myths that continue to exert a powerful hold on mass culture.
The Tragedy of the Plains Indians TheNative Americans who lived on the Great Plains were confined onto reservations through renegotiation of treaties and 30 years of war. The Gilded Age The s and s were years of unprecedented technological innovation, mass immigration, and intense political partisanship, including disputes over currency, tariffs, political corruption and patronage, and railroads and business trusts.
The Making of Modern America The late 19th century saw the advent of new communication technologies, including the phonograph, the telephone, and radio; the rise of mass-circulation newspapers and magazines; the growth of commercialized entertainment, as well as new sports, including basketball, bicycling, and football, and appearance of new transportation technologies, such as the automobile, electric trains and trolleys.
The newcomers were often Catholic or Jewish and two-thirds of them settled in cities. In this chapter you will learn about the new immigrants and the anti-immigrant reaction.
By the beginning of the 20th century, per capita income and industrial production in the United States exceeded that of any other country except Britain.
Unlike the pre-Civil War economy, this new one was dependent on raw materials from around the world and it sold goods in global markets. Business organization expanded in size and scale.
There was an unparalleled increase in factory production, mechanization, and business consolidation. The Rise of the City This section traces the changing nature of the American city in the late 19th century, the expansion of cities horizontally and vertically, the problems caused by urban growth, the depiction of cities in art and literature, and the emergence of new forms of urban entertainment.
The Political Crisis of the s The s and s were years of turbulence. Disputes erupted over labor relations, currency, tariffs, patronage, and railroads.
Drought, plagues of grasshoppers, boll weevils, rising costs, falling prices, and high interest rates made it increasingly difficult to make a living as a farmer. Many farmers blamed railroad owners, grain elevator operators, land monopolists, commodity futures dealers, mortgage companies, merchants, bankers, and manufacturers of farm equipment for their plight.
In the election ofthe Populists and the Democrats nominated William Jennings Bryan for president.Unfortunately this agreement between Sir Charles Somerset and Gaika helped provoke a quasi-nationalist movement among the Western Xhosas, led by the 'prophet' Makana, which led to a renewal of the civil war between Gaika and Ndlambe.
May 18, · C. location--the American Revolutionary War was fought within the thirteen original colonies, however, the American Civil War was fought in the South (primarily in the middle to southeastern United States), only a few battles were fought in the North (the northeastern U.S.).Status: Resolved.
United States - Reconstruction and the New South, – The original Northern objective in the Civil War was the preservation of the Union—a war aim with which virtually everybody in the free states agreed.
Although the Civil War marks a transition between the Old South and the New South, the transition is much more of a work-in-progress than a complete break.
It should also be noted that the South has changed more for some people in some regions than for others. The completion of the railroads to the West following the Civil War opened up vast areas of the region to settlement and economic development.
White settlers from the East poured across the Mississippi to mine, farm, and ranch. African-American settlers also came West from the Deep South, convinced. Differences between the North and the South were readily apparent well before the American Revolution.
Economic, social and political structures differed significantly between the two regions, and these disparities only widened in the s. In , the Civil War erupted between .