Visit Website The Rise of Athens The defeat of the Persians marked the beginning of Athenian political, economic, and cultural dominance. Other legislators were chosen randomly by lot, not by election. Visit Website However, demokratia did not mean that Athens approached her relationships with other Greek city-states with anything approaching egalitarianism. To protect far-flung Greek territories from Persian interference, Athens organized a confederacy of allies that it called the Delian League in B.
The Early Greek World, History and Prehistory [For a more detailed history and cultural overview of ancient Greece, see the Perseus web site click here. Geography and Greek Culture The geography of Greece is a primary factor, if not the pre-eminent feature of the culture and lives of the ancient populations who lived there.
Inhabiting an area that is ninety percent mountains with little arable land forced the Greeks into ways of life which did not center strictly around farming and agriculture. They were, for the most part, driven to go to sea to make ends meet. Indeed, no place in Greece is further than fifty miles from the sea, so the inevitability of fishing and maritime adventure was incumbent on many in antiquity, as it still is.
To this day, many Greeks make a living in shipping, for instance, Aristotle Onassis, the multi-millionaire who acquired a fortune in international trade and married Jacqueline Kennedy after the assassination of her first husband.
Ironically, while the mountainous topography pushed the Greeks to explore lands far beyond their immediate locale, at the same time it also separated the cities of Greece and obstructed intra-Hellenic contact, leading many of them to develop along discrete, sometimes incompatible lines.
For instance, settlements as close as Athens and Thebes which are less than sixty miles apart not only came to see each other as "foreign" but even evolved a long-lasting rivalry that persisted into the Classical Age.
Ironically, in some ways the ancient Greeks became generally friendlier with peoples across the sea than their own neighbors, because the landscape made foreign nations seem "closer" than many cities on the Greek mainland.
Overall, their geographical situation forced the ancient Greeks from early on to look outward from their immediate locality and internationalize their interests. This broadened their horizons and exposed them like few other civilizations to foreign ideas and ways of living. The ensuing cosmopolitanism played an important role in their development as a focal group in ancient Western Civilization.
For a people living on the edge of nowhere, they found themselves uniquely thrust in medias res "into the middle of things".
The Prehistory of Greece The earliest inhabitants of Greece are a mysterious—and possibly mythological—people called the Pelasgians about whom we know very little. These natives and their culture were overwhelmed and ultimately utterly annihilated by the invasion of a new people known now as the Indo-Europeans click here to read more about the Indo-Europeans.
If it were not for a handful of Pelasgian words like plinth "brick"a term preserved in ancient Greek, along with a few city-names like Corinth and other scattered vestiges of the Pelasgians' language, we would hardly even know these people ever existed. That's how completely devastating was the Indo-European conquest of this region.
So, when people today study the ancient Greeks, they are examining not the earliest known humans in the area but later invaders called the Indo-Europeans. This is clear because of the language the Greeks spoke. All extant forms of ancient Greek clearly derive from a common ancestor called Proto-Indo-European, a language which engendered a large number of daughter languages found across much of the Eurasian continent, all the way from India to Norway.
These closely related tongues show that the Indo-Europeans must have migrated over thousand of miles in different directions, displacing natives and settling themselves in lands across a wide swath of the Eurasian continent. Another thing we know about the Indo-Europeans is that they tended to enter a region in successive waves.
That is, Indo-Europeans rarely migrated into an area just once, and Greece was no exception. As early as BCE one Indo-European contingent had begun infiltrating the Greek peninsula and by the end of that millennium at least three major discrete migrations of these intruders had surged across various parts of Greece.
One racial group of these Indo-Europeans was called the Ionians.
They settled along the eastern coast of Greece, in particular the city of Athens, and along the western coast of Asia Minor modern Turkey. Another group, the Dorians, settled the Peloponnese the southern part of Greece and many inland areas.
The result was a "dark age" accompanied by massive disruptions in the Greek economy and civilization, including a total loss of literacy. This dark age lasted about three centuries, from to BCE and, while it seems from our perspective today like a dismal time, it must have been a dynamic and fascinating period in Greek history, perhaps a wonderful time to have lived.
The lack of written historical records—the inevitable product of the age's illiteracy—leaves the impression of a vast void but, to judge the period from its outcome, it gave shape to much of the rest of Greek history.
Many of the things we associate with Greek culture—for instance, vase-painting, epic poetry, and ship-building—assumed their basic and most familiar forms during this "dark" age. Particularly, many of the Greek myths read and studied today are traceable to this time period. Quite a few are set in the generations just before the dark age or in its early phases.
For example, the famous cycle "collection" of myths about the Trojan War—if, in fact, it is based on any real event in history—must date to some time around BCE.
These myths found their most brilliant expression in the early Greek epic poems attributed to Homer, ancient Greece's greatest early poet.
Homer's first epic, The Iliad, tells the tale of the Greeks' sack of Troy and the anger of their great hero, Achilles. Among other famous characters included there are the beautiful Helen and her hapless Greek husband Menelaus, the king of Sparta. His brother, Agamemnon, the king of neighboring Mycenae who leads the expedition of Greeks to Troy, is married to Helen's sister Clytemnestra with whom he has several children including Electra and Orestes.Pre-Han Classical Chinese Thought: Confucianism and Daoism-Written Responses for Questions 1.
Confucianism is a system of ideological beliefs and ethical philosophy that is developed from the teachings and thoughts of ancient Chinese teacher Confucius. SECTION 1: THE ORIGINS OF WESTERN THEATRE.
Chapter 3: The Early Greek World, History and Prehistory This epoch now known as the Pre-Classical Age Pisistratus' lasting contributions laid the groundwork for the Athenians' rise to prominence in the next century.
CONTRIBUTIONS OF CLASSICAL THEORY OF MANAGEMENT. y Laid emphasis on division of labour, specifications, span of control etc. y 5/5(2). He is regarded as one of the most important pre-classical composers and symphonic writers who was very instrumental in developing Mannheim into a leading center of orchestral music and composition.
Being an exceptionally motivated and talented musician, Stamitz surrounded himself with virtuosos to build his orchestra which astonished all listeners. In the end, be it called the Lyric Age, the Age of Colonization, the Age of Tyrants, the Age of Lawgivers or simply the Pre-Classical Age, these three centuries of Greek civilization ( BCE) are by any name one of the great revolutionary periods in human history.
Pre-Classical Contributors. Regular Faculty Excerpted from the School of Public Health's Guide to Faculty and Their Expertise To learn more about individual faculty, select a name from the dropdown list, or click a name in the descriptions on this page.
JEAN ABRAHAM, Ph.D.