Experiment 4 addition of forces and

In that unit, the forces acting upon objects were always directed in one dimension. There may have been both horizontal and vertical forces acting upon objects; yet there were never individual forces that were directed both horizontally and vertically. Furthermore, when a free-body diagram analysis was performed, the net force was either horizontal or vertical; the net force and corresponding acceleration was never both horizontal and vertical.

Experiment 4 addition of forces and

Tragacanth powder is the suspending agent. Suspension without Tragacanth powder will separate into two layers with clear boundary. One is the clear liquid phase and another one is the solid phase. By using Tragacanth powder, suspension is formed where the Chalk is suspended in the liquid and the suspension becomes not clear and more viscous.

By using larger amount of Tragacanth powder, the suspension formed becomes more viscous. The time for particles to precipitate is longer and the ability of redispersibility becomes less.

This is because as more Tragacanth powder is used, more Chalk will be suspended and the rate of precipitation will become slower.

Experiment 4 addition of forces and

Plot the graph of height of sedimentation versus time. It forms film around particle and decrease interparticle attraction. However, after the Periodic Chalk Mixture has been left to stand for a period of time, the sediment start to form and the height of sediment increase as the time increase.

This is because particles in a suspension will settle out if the suspension is allowed to stand undisturbed. Particles in a suspension are larger than those in the solution, and therefore will settle out if left to stand.

This is due to the present of suspending agent. The addition of the tragacanth, at some critical concentration, negates the surface charge on the suspended particles and allows the formation of floccules or clusters as particles are held loosely together by weak van der Waals forces.

Since the particles are linked together only loosely, they will not cake and may be easily redispersed by shaking the suspension. Plot the graph of height of solid phase against time for different amount of tragacanth in the suspension.

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However, the sedimentation starts and the height of sediment increases with time. This is due to the inter—particular attractive forces are stronger than the repulsive forces of the Tragacanth powder on the chalk particles.

Therefore, the sedimentation formed increases with time until a maximum sedimentation level. Based on theory, the more the amount of Tragacanth powder present, the lower the sediment formed and the time needed for sedimentation to occur is longer.

This is due to the sediment formed in the suspension containing higher amount of Tragacanth powder is more stable and less flocculation occur.

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They need more time for sedimentation to occur compared to suspension containing less amount of Tragacanth powder. Therefore, the amount of Tragacanth powder in the formulation will influence the height of sediment formed and the time for sedimentation of suspension to occur.

But based on the result we observed, there is increase in volume of sedimentation when increase amount of tragacanth. This is maybe due to some errors occur during experiment. We having a problem during observed and measured the height of sediment. This is because it is quite difficult for us to observe the sedimentation height.

So, maybe there is error during observation and reading the height of sediment. Explain briefly the mechanism of viscometer analysis. Plot a graph of viscosity of the suspension versus the amount of Tragacanth g.Experiment 3 – Forces are Vectors Objectives Understand that some quantities in physics are vectors, others are scalars.

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