Western diplomats criticized the decision. Allegations of globalism[ edit ] There have been controversy and criticism of the UN organization and its activities since at least the s. Controversies regarding these allegations have resulted in a sometimes shaky relationship between the organization and the United States government, with three presidential administrations, that of Ronald Reagan, George H. Bush and George W.
Issue 2, Spring Religion, after all, is a powerful constituent of cultural norms and values, and because it addresses the most profound existential issues of human life e.
These choices, in turn, determine their attitudes toward conflict and violence. Violent and nonviolent actors alike claim monolithic authority to justify and advocate as well as to deflect criticism. For instance, religious leaders who condemn violence often seek to distance their religion from co-religionists who have committed acts of terror or provoked violent conflict.
Yet, it also means that within each of these religions there is room for the normative tasks of conflict resolution. There are existing and developing spiritual practices and theological and ethical resources for hermeneutics of peace. They can also play an important role in countering the violent extremism of minority religious movements.
In sum, religion can be a source of peace or violent conflict, and its importance and potential strength lies in this ambiguity. The Need for Reappraisal: Religion and Conflict Resolution  Western modernity, especially as understood through the Age of Reason and the Enlightenment, has heavily influenced conflict resolution and international relations.
As such, these academic disciplines and their practical applications have incorporated elements of secularization theory  and marginalized the influence of religion in their analysis of world affairs.
Scott Thomas explains that in Europe during the Middle Ages the religious realm conflated with the social and the moral, all of which were sourced from and sustained by community. The sacred and spiritual were an indistinguishable part of a total way of life of social, political, economic, and moral dimensions.
The process and effects of secularization have been halting and mixed. Even in the West where governments, academics, and policy institutes have, to various degrees, minimized or ignored the effects of religion on international relations, religion itself has not disappeared.
Analyzing data from the European World Value Survey, she argues that the dramatic decrease in religious attendance since the s has not been accompanied by a decrease in religious belief. Moghadam concludes that change over time in religious adherence, behavior, and values indicates a general trend of strengthening in a majority of countries, certainly in the former Eastern Bloc and most likely in large parts of Latin America, Africa, East Asia, South East Asia, and the Middle East.
It can be traced backward through the roots of some of the most intractable contemporary conflicts including conflicts in the Middle East, Northern Ireland, the Balkans, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Tibet, and Kashmir.
In new terms of terror, religion has been a factor in events ranging from the bombing of abortion clinics in the early s to the attacks of September 11, It also illustrates a significant distinction between religiosity among domestic populations and religious literacy in international affairs.
While high numbers of Americans are religious and religious issues have been a part of domestic politics for at least the last fifty years, U. Despite the Christian rhetoric with which the Bush administration pursues its own policy, it has marginalized the validity and importance of religious identity in the Arab world.
According to Michael Hirsch, the Bush administration dismissed veteran State Department Arabists during the crucial months of andand instead consulted scholars like Bernard Lewis, author of What Went Wrong? Bulliet cautions against rejecting Islam as anti-modern and urges the West to remember its own struggle with the role of religion in civil society, one that continues in America today.
Foundations of Religious Peacebuilding Changes in the context of international relations and conflict resolution have been matched by changes internal to many religious traditions. Positive responses to the human rights era, globalization, and fundamentalism have included the growth of the Christian ecumenical movement, increased pursuit of interfaith dialogue, and the development of coalitions across religious, secular, cultural, and geographic boundaries.
While this necessarily involves training in contemporary conflict resolution techniques and approaches, religious actors can also draw upon their identities as participants in a social and spiritual tradition.
The social theory of Alasdair MacIntyre provides a useful vehicle for beginning such an exploration. Grown from Aristotelian thought, it argues for the importance of community in forming, continuing, and rejecting morality and tradition.
In this way, it resembles the African concept of ubuntu, which Desmond Tutu describes this way: Put more simply, working toward moral ideals is a way of life rather than a series of independent decisions.
As no tradition is monolithic, whether it contains a religion, a guerilla movement, or a government at war, would-be peacebuilders engage with a variety of moral choices in relationship with members of their community. This transformative process is essential to broad and sustained adoption of peacebuilding strategies and personas.
This is an essential part of peacebuilding and, as MacIntyre explains, the junction between the particular and the universal:Envisioning the United Nations in the Twenty-first Century Proceedings of the Inaugural Symposium on the United Nations System in the Twenty-first Century. The people of the Six Nations, also known by the French term, Iroquois  Confederacy, call themselves the Hau de no sau nee (ho dee noe sho nee) meaning People Building a Long House.
Located in the northeastern region of North America, originally the Six Nations was five and included the Mohawks, Oneidas, Onondagas, Cayugas, and Senecas. Ho Chi Minh, the enemy of the United States in the Vietnam War, was initially a friend.
He worked with U.S. special forces in rescuing downed American airmen and providing intelligence on Japanese movements during the last year of World War II.
Our Common Future, Chapter 2: Towards Sustainable Development - A/42/ Annex, Chapter 2 - an element of the body of UN Documents for earth stewardship and international decades for a culture of peace and non-violence for the children of the world.
Concepts and Methods of Conflict Resolution and Peace-Building: Imperatives for Religious Leaders in Nigeria Benson O.S. Udezo Prize underscores the universal desire of all nations for peace and conflict The concept equally includes such other terms like conflict.
C. Actors and Influences at the Conference 9 The Conference came at the end of a century whose numerous armed conflicts gave birth to the modern movements for arbitration, peace, and humanitarian law (Humanitarian Law, International).Military powers, peace activists, arbitration proponents, and humanitarian organizations would all shape, in varying degrees, the outcome of the .